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Walburgis (Saint Walpurga) church, which originally dates from the eleventh century.
After the incorporation of the IJssel lands in Charlemagne's Francia, Zutphen became a local centre of governance under a count. Afterwards a circular fortress was built to protect the budding town against Viking attacks.Taken by the Spanish in 1587 by the treachery of the English commander Rowland York, Zutphen was recovered by Maurice, prince of Orange, in 1591, and except for two short periods, one in 1672 and the other during the French Revolutionary Wars, it has since then remained a part of the Netherlands. In World War II the town was bombed several times by the allied forces because the bridge over the IJssel was vital to support the German troops at Arnhem after the Operation Market Garden.After two weeks of battle the town was liberated on 14 April 1945. Nowadays Zutphen has one of the best preserved medieval town centres of North-Western Europe, including the remains of the medieval town wall and a few hundred buildings dating from the 13th, 14th and 15th century.Some stores open earlier, and the larger supermarkets usually stay open until (10 p.m.).Zutphen, although a relatively small town, houses one of the Netherlands' 13 courts, the national training institution for judges and public prosecutors (SSR), the national police academy for senior police investigators, three prisons and a large number of lawyers.
There are several buildings: new institutions replacing the old facilities, but the old prisons remained open after completion of the new facilities.